Cultural differences. In addition to the language barriers, many eastern (and western) companies operate with a command-and-control-style of management, which relies on rules like these:
I’m the manager, so I make the rules
Your job is to do what I say
If you don’t hear from me, that means you’re doing fine
In this environment, people are discouraged from asking critical questions or proposing alternatives to approaching a problem. Agile needs the collaboration of the entire team, not just a few managers calling all the shots. Empowerment is key and it make take some time to overcome the cultural realities faced by offshoring companies, however, once people realize the have the trust, freedom and responsibility, they’re motivation goes through the roof.